What Types of Batteries are There?

Какие бывают аккумуляторы?

The battery is a source of starting current in a vehicle, which ensures engine start and operation of devices connected to the on–board network when the engine is turned off. There are several types of such devices available today. To make the right choice, one must know what types of batteries there are, as well as their strong and weak points.


Antimony batteries

All batteries are divided into lead-acid and alkaline batteries. The principle of this division is based on the composition of the electrolyte. In the first case, sulfuric acid is used, in the second case it’s alkali. The oldest type of lead batteries is the antimony type, in which the antimony content in an alloy with lead is 5%. The advantages of these models are:

  • The electrolyte level can be checked and replenished;
  • Resistance to deep discharge;
  • Slow discharge during periods of downtime;
  • Low cost.


Such batteries are resistant to voltage fluctuations in the network. Nevertheless, they need to be constantly checked for the amount of electrolyte that may completely boil off. These batteries last an average of 2-3 years. Batteries with a reduced antimony content are called low antimony batteries. They have a small energy storage capacity, but their service life has been increased to 3-4 years.


Calcium batteries

The next type of lead-acid batteries are calcium batteries labeled Ca/Ca. As the name implies, antimony in them is replaced by calcium, so the risk of electrolyte boiling is much lower than in the previous types. There are other advantages as well:

  • Low self-discharge rate;
  • Powerful starting current;
  • Increased energy storage capacity;
  • Long shelf life.


Such batteries are more expensive than antimony batteries, yet their working life is up to 6 years. Among the disadvantages of the devices are sensitivity to deep discharge and the fact that these batteries are maintenance-free.


Какие бывают аккумуляторы?


Hybrid batteries

Hybrid batteries are a special type of acid batteries. They can be recognized by the Ca+ or SB/Ca marking. In these batteries, the positive electrodes are doped with antimony, and the negative terminals are made with the addition of calcium. Their advantages include:

  • Resistance to a large number of charge-discharge cycles;
  • Resistance to voltage fluctuations;
  • High starting current values;
  • Protection against deep self-discharge.


Such batteries can be used for at least five years, but they need to be refilled with distillate from time to time. They are more expensive than antimony and calcium batteries.


Gel batteries

Gel batteries are a type of vehicle batteries in which the electrolyte is added in a thickened form. They are marked as Gel, have reliable protection against evaporation of the filler and its leaks. These rechargeable batteries are distinguished by:

  1. Environmental friendliness;
  2. Reliability;
  3. Long-term charge retention;
  4. Resistance to deep discharge.


Gel batteries are designed for a large number of charges and discharges. However, they are afraid of overheating and severe frosts. These devices are rather costly compared to other types of batteries for passenger cars.


Какие бывают аккумуляторы?


AGM batteries

In AGM batteries, the role of the electrolyte is also performed not by a liquid, but by a gel. The batteries were designed specifically for vehicles equipped with the Start/Stop function. There is glass fiber impregnated with electrolyte between the battery electrodes. They are stable against:

  • Leaks;
  • Subzero temperatures;
  • Short circuits;
  • Voltage fluctuations.


Still, these batteries do not tolerate overheating and overcharging well. Yet on the other hand, they are cheaper than acid, hybrid and even calcium batteries. At the same time, the battery life is up to 10-12 years.


EFB batteries

Improved batteries filled with liquid electrolyte have the EFB marking. Together with the plates, the filling material is located inside a microfiber shell. The features of this type of batteries include:

  1. Short circuit protection;
  2. Resistance to deep discharge;
  3. Fast charging;
  4. A significant number of charge-discharge cycles.


The batteries are ideal for urban driving. Batteries of this type are used in vehicles with the Start/Stop system and can be used for 5-7 years. Their disadvantages include high price and large dimensions.


Какие бывают аккумуляторы?


Alkaline batteries

When learning about battery types , it is worth paying attention to alkaline models. They differ from the previous types in electrolyte content, which contains alkali instead of sulfuric acid. They have a number of peculiarities:

  • Maintaining working capacity in the cold;
  • Resistance to deep discharge;
  • Light weight;
  • An impressive operating resource.


The disadvantages of this type of automotive batteries include low efficiency and a considerable decrease in capacity in case of undercharging. At the same time, they can be used for up to 25 years.


When choosing a battery, you need to consider which types of batteries are suitable for specific vehicles and certain operating conditions.

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